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Friday, April 14, 2006


protected A republic, in its basic sense, is a state in which sovereignty derives ultimately from the people (however defined), rather than from an hereditary principle. Republics are not necessarily democratic — for instance in many republics power has been exercised in a dictatorship manner, or full citizenship has been denied to slaves, women, or persons of specific racial or ethnic origin — and not all democratic constitutions are considered to be republics — for instance the United Kingdom, although democratic in most of its institutions, and operating under the rule of law, is never referred to as a republic, since it has an hereditary head of state (as well as vestigial hereditary elements in its legislature). The word is derived from the Latin res publica, or public things. This term, like the Greek language equivalent politeia, fundamentally meant the political organisation of society in a general sense, and the use of such terms by classical authors (for instance in the title of Platos Platos Republic) should not necessarily be taken as referring to any particular form of constitution. The best known ancient republic was the Roman Republic, which lasted from 509 BC until 44 BC. In the Roman Republic, the principles of annuality (holding office for a term of only one year) and collegiality (at least two men held the office at the same time) were usually observed. These principles were were continued in a formal manner during the Roman Empire although the state had in practice become an hereditary monarchy. In modern times, the head of state of a republic is usually formed by only one person, the president, but there are some exceptions such as Switzerland, which has a seven-member council as its head of state, called the Federal Council of Switzerland, and San Marino, where the position of head of state is shared by two people. It is not necessarily the case that republics are more democratic than monarchies or vice versa, since the powers of the head of state (whether monarch or president) may be purely ceremonial (although an elected head of state within a democratic system is generally considered more democratic than a monarchy). Monarchs generally reign for life, and when they die they are succeeded by a relative, either chosen by themselves or determined according to set rules. Many modern constitutional monarchies are very democratic, featuring a popularly elected parliament. The presidents of republics, by contrast, are generally elected for a limited term, and their successors are chosen by the body that elected them. These days even non-democratic republics generally claim to be democratic, though the outcome of the election may be assured, and still maintain the ritual of regularly electing their head of state, and frequently in these states, heads of states have left office voluntarily (through resignation or retirement) or been forced out (through constitutional means) by other members of the ruling elite. But there are some exceptions each new Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, for instance, dagobertomlaawas elected by the chief princes of the empire, though over the centuries the custom developed of always electing successive members of a particular family to that office. Republics in the Soviet Union were member states which had to meet three criteria to be named republics, 1) Be on the periphery of the Soviet Union so as to be able to take advantage of their theoretical right to secede, 2) be economically strong enough to be self sufficient upon secession, And 3) Be named after at least one million people of the ethnic group which should make up the majority population of said republic. Republics were originally created by Stalin and continue to be created even today. States of the United States adobe acrobat downloadare required, like the federal government, to be republican in form, with final authority resting with the people. This was required because the states were intended acrobat reader downloadto create and enforce most domestic laws, with the exception of areas deligated to the federal government and prohibited to the states. The founding fathers of the country intended most domestic laws to be handled by the states, although, over time, the federal government has gained more and more influence over domestic law. Requiring the states to be a republic in form was also seen as protecting the citizens rights and preventing a state from becoming a dictatorship or monarchy.

Republic in classic and renaissance texts

Before roughly the 18th century, all known republics were also more or less of mixed constitution. Classical-definition-of-republic 1 It has only been after the French Revolution that one sees republic being used interchangeably with democracy.


Currently there is a very large number of republics in the adobe acrobat readerworld. A republican form of government can be combined with many different kinds of economy and democracy. Some examples for certain forms of republic are:
United States, Germany are federal republics governed by representative democracy, in which the states play a crucial role.
Switzerland is a confederation republic governed by a combination adobe acrobat free downloadof representative democracy and direct acrobat distillerdemocracy.
Russia is a federation of semi-autonomous republics (states) and directly ruled provinces.
Iran is a theocracy republic.
Historic Republics:
Sparta (c. late 7th Century BC-146 BC)
Athens Only under Solon.
The Roman Republic (509 BC-c.44 BC)
Carthage (308 BC-146 BC)
The Republic of acrobat reader downloadVenice (c.9th Century-1797)
The French Republic (1792-1804)
The Republic of Texas (1836-1845)
The Commonwealth of England (1649-1660)
The Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (1581-1795)
The Soviet Union (1917-1991) was a federal republic Note: Sparta never gave a proper title for its form of government and was considered a republic when monarchy played a part in their government, and while Athens is considered a republic under Solon, it was gradually changed to a democracy in Classical times. Ancient Greek authors, such amichaisb48as Herodotus and Thucydides, described non-monarchical regimes as oligarchies (if they were ruled by a small group of citizens), tyrannies (if they were ruled by one person who had risen to power by means of coup) or democracies (if right to vote and be elected was given to a large number of citizens, included the lower classes), whereas those ancient Greeks that studied the politics and political systems such as Plato and Aristotle made a distinction between those that had mixed constitutions and others.

Magnetic evaporative cooling

Magnetic evaporative cooling is a technique for lowering the temperature of a group of atoms. The process using a magnetic field to put atoms in a magnetic trap, a flask-shaped magnetic field. Collisions mean that over time, individual atoms will become much more energetic than the others, and they will escape the trap, removing energy from the system and reducing the temperature of the group remaining. This process, where particles by collision surmount a barrier is similar to the familiar process by which standing water becomes water vapor. A way to visualize this is to take a bowl and fill it almost all the way up with popcorn. Then shake the bowl enough so that the bouncing isnt enough to spill over the side. Every so often one of the popped corns will jump out, evaporating from the bowl. This technique was developed to study the Bose-Einstein condensate, an exotic state of matter in which multiple atoms enter the same quantum state. This condensation only happens at very low temperatures: around 50 picokelvins for rubidium atoms. The use of kinetic evaporation was pioneered in 1995, first by Eric A. Cornell acrobat downloadand Carl E. Wieman for rubidium, and then by J. J. Tollet and C. C. Bradley for caesium. Since then the technique has been improved upon, notably by Bouyers team at Groupe dOptique Atomique Laboratoire at the Charles Fabry Optical Institute.


M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman and E. A. Cornell, Observations of adobe acrobat readerBose-Einstein Condensation in a Dilute Atomic Vapor, Science (journal), 269:198–201, adobe acrobat downloadJuly 14 1995.
J. J. Tollett, C. C. pernelid07Bradley, C. A. adobe acrobat free downloadSackett, and acrobat reader downloadR. G. Hulet, Permanent magnet trap for cold atoms, Phys. Rev. A 51, R22, 1995.
Bouyer et al, RF-induced evaporative cooling fabionwgtfand BEC in adobe acrobat readera high magnetic field, 2000.

Jean Lesage International Airport

Jean Lesage International Airport is located in Sainte-Foy, Quebec, a borough of pessach69spQuebec City, Quebec in Canada. The airport has the IATA Airport Code of YQB and acrobat distillerwas named in honor of the adobe acrobatformer Premier of the Province of Quebec, Jean Lesage. The following airlines serve Jean Lesage International Airport:
Air Canada
Air adobe acrobat 70Canada Jazz
Air Transat
American Eagle Airlines
Continental Express
Northwest Airlines
Pascan free adobe acrobatAviation
Quebecair Express Air Canada Cargo is YQBs cargo hagaleahu0kzacrobat readeradobe acrobat reader free downloadairline.

Prime Ministers of Western Sahara

This page contains a list of Prime Ministers of Western Sahara See also lists of incumbents

Prime Minister of Western Sahara, 1976 - present

Mohamed Lamine Ould Ahmed: 5 March 1976 - 4 adobe acrobat free downloadNovember 1982
Mahfoud Ali Beiba: 4 November 1982 - 18 December 1985
Mohamed Lamine Ould Ahmed free adobe acrobat(2nd acrobat readertime) 18 December 1985 - 16 August 1988
Mahfoud Ali Beiba (2nd time) 16 August 1988 - 18 acrobat reader free downloadSeptember acrobat reader download1993
Bouchraya Hammoudi Bayoun: 19 September 1993 - 8 September 1995
Mahfoud Ali Beiba (3rd time) 8 September 1995 - 10 February 1999
Bouchraya Hammoudi Bayoun (2nd time) blytheh7tw10 February adobe acrobat download1999 - 29 October brigidae6082003
Abdelkader Taleb Oumar: 29 October 2003 -


id toc - Years:
1880 1881 1882 - 1883 - 1884 1885 1886
1850s 1860s 1870s - 1880s - 1890s 1900s 1910s - Centuries:
18th century - 19th century - 20th century C19YearInTopic


January 16 - The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, establishing the United States Civil service, is passed
January 19 - The first electric lighting system employing overhead wires begins service (Roselle, New Jersey) It was built by Thomas Edison.
February 16 - Ladies Home Journal is published for the first time.
February 23 - Alabama becomes the first U.S. state to enact an antitrust law.
February 28 - The first vaudeville theater is opened, in Boston, Massachusetts.
March - An Australian Catholic school, Star of the Sea College is founded in Elsternwick, Victoria (now known as Gardenstown, Victoria) by the Irish Presentation Sisters.
May 24 - Brooklyn Bridge is opened to traffic after 14 years of construction.
May 30 - In New York City, a rumor that the Brooklyn Bridge was going to collapse causes a stampede which crushes twelve people.
July 22 – Zulu king Cetshwayo barely escapes rebel attack with his life.
August 12 - The last quagga dies at the Artis Magistra zoo in Amsterdam.
August 26 - August 28 - Krakatau volcano eruption (local time)- 163 villages destroyed, 36380 dead.
September 15 - The Bombay Natural History Society is founded.
September 29 - A consortium of flour mill operators in Minneapolis, Minnesota form the Soo Line as a means to get their product to the Great Lakes ports but avoid the high tariffs of Chicago, IL.
October 1 - Sydney Boys High School is founded in Sydney, Australia. It is the first boys public school in Australia.
October 15 - The Supreme Court of the United States declares part of the Civil Rights Act of 1875 to be unconstitutional since it allowed individuals and corporations to discriminate based on race.
November 3 - American Old West: Self-described Black Bart the Po-8 gets away with his acrobat reader downloadlast stagecoach robbery, but leaves an incriminating clue that eventually leads to his capture.
November 18 - United States and afreda5d25Canada railroads institute four standard continental time zones, ending the confusion of thousands of local times.
November 28 - Whitman College is chartered as a four-year college in Walla Walla, Washington.

Unknown date

Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch (Germany.bacteriologist) discovers the cholera bacillus.
Antonio Gaudi begins to build Sagrada Familia cathedral.
Fabian Society founded.
Orient Express begins operation.



January 3 - Clement Attlee, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1967)
January 6 - Khalil Gibran, poet, painter, novelist (d. 1931)
January 10 - Francis X. Bushman, actor (d. 1966)
January 10 - Aleksei Nikolaevich Tolstoi, writer (d. 1945)
January 21 - Olav Aukrust, Norway poet
February adobe acrobat download15 - Sax Rohmer, author (d. 1959)
February 7 - Eubie Blake, musician, composer (d. 1983)
February 11 - Paul August von Klenau Denmark composer/Conductor (music)
February 23 - Karl Jaspers, philosopher (d. 1969)
February 23 - Victor Fleming, director (d. 1949)
March 19 - Joseph Stilwell, United States soldier (d. 1946)
April 1 - Lon Chaney, actor (d. 1930)
April 11 - Hozumi Shigeto, Japan author
April 15 - Stanley Bruce, eighth Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1967)
May 1 - Thomas J. Moore, actor (d. 1955)
May 18 - Walter Gropius, architect, founder of Bauhaus (d. 1969)
May 20 - King Faisal I of Iraq (d. 1933)
May 23 - Douglas Fairbanks, Sr., actor, cofounder of United Artists (d. 1939)
May 31 - Lauri Kristian Relander, President of Finland (d. 1942)
June 5 - John Maynard Keynes, Economist (d. 1946)
June 21 - Lluís Companys i Jover, President of Catalonia (d. 1940)
June 24 - Victor free adobe acrobat readerFranz Hess, United States physicist


July 4 - Rube Goldberg, cartoonist (d. 1970)
July 29 - Porfirio Barba-Jacob, Colombian poet and writer (d. 1942)
July 29 - Benito Mussolini, Fascism dictator of Italy (d. 1945)
August 19 - Elsie Ferguson, American actress (d. 1961)
August free acrobat reader23 - United States Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV, Medal of Honor recipient
October 26 - Paul Pilgrim, American athlete
November 8 - Arnold Bax, composer
November 11 - Ernest Ansermet, Swiss conductor (d. 1969)
November 18 - Carl Vinson, United States United acrobat reader free downloadStates House of Representatives (d. 1981)
November 25 - Harvey Spencer farnalla63gLewis, F.R.C., Rosicrucian mysticist and Imperator of AMORC (d. 1939)
November 25 - Merrill C. Meigs, newspaper publisher, aviation promoter (d. 1968)
December 3 - Anton Webern, Austrian composer
December 16 ? Max Linder, French comedic actor (d. 1925)
December 22 - Edgar free adobe acrobatVarèse, France composer
December 25 - Maurice Utrillo, artist and illustrator

unknown date

Alberto Gerchunoff, Argentine writer


January 10 - Samuel Mudd, formerly doctor to John Wilkes Booth
January 23 - Gustave Doré, French artist
February 13 - Richard Wagner, Germany composer
February 17 - Napoleon Coste, France guitarist, composer
March 14 - Karl Marx, Germany philosopher
April 30 - Edouard Manet, painter
May 24 - Abdel Kadir, Algerian leader
May 26 - Edward Sabine, astronomer
July 22 - Edward Ord, US army officer
October 30 - Robert Volkmann, composer


Rapping is one of the elements of hip hop and the distinguishing feature of hip hop music, it is a form of rhyme lyrics spoken rhythmically over musical instruments, with a musical backdrop of sampling (music), scratching and mixing by DJs. Originally, rapping was called Master of Ceremonies and accompanied Disk jockey.


Rapping began as a variation on the toasting found in reggae, funk and dub music, mixed with influences from radio DJs and playing the dozens. Also of influence were the works of The Last Poets and Gil Scott Heron, Bob Dylans Subterranean Homesick Blues and Parliament-(band). The original rappers, or MCs (from Master of Ceremonies) would improvise rhymes over the beats created by the DJs. Early raps were frequently merely a sequence of boasts, or attempts to upstage the other MCs. See roots of rap music for earlier forms that also contributed to rap. The first rap record was 1979s King Tim III by the Fatback Band (featuring the rapper King Tim III). The Sugarhill Gang followed the same year with Rappers Delight, that became a major hit and is based on Chics oft-sampled disco track Good Times. In 1981 Blondie (band) became the first mainstream act to feature a rap in their hit Rapture. Rap is a way of poetically expressing oneself while rhyming on a beat.

Politics and rap

In the mid-1980s, rap became increasingly politicized, through the works of Public Enemy, KRS One, and others, and tended to chronicle the black urban experience. chiquita46oyLater on, many rap artists expanded with anti-war songs, anti-drug songs, womens rights songs, and so on.Gangsta rap may be seen in this context of subversion, but is also seen by some as the abandonment of a constructive message. The early 90s saw artists such as NWA and Ice-T facing massive controversy for their explosive tales of murder, rebellion, and sex. This style of rap quickly became the most popular, as rappers like Tupac Shakur, Snoop Dogg, and Dr. Dre became mainstream orrenf2gkcelebrities. Now such celebs consist of 50 Cent, Fabolous and Eminem.

Descendents and influence

Rapping can be seen as one of the four elements of hip hop: MCing (rapping), DJing (mixing, cutting and scratching), graffiti, and breakdancing. However, in the course of raps history, new musical styles developed that use rapping - especially rapcore, also known as rap/rock or rap/metal, first introduced by crossover pioneer Run-DMCs collaboration with Aerosmith in 1986. Some alternative rap has musically very little to do with hip hop and rap music. Often consisting of bizarre soundscapes and vivid lyrics, abstract hip-hop has developed, largely in the underground. Music outside of the United States has taken the rap style and blended it with completely different elements. Japanese dance music, for example, often adobe acrobat free downloaduses rapping to complement or break up the singing parts, with lyrics containing upbeat themes set to energetic rhythms and clean, warm synths. A new offshoot of garage techno, dubbed Grime, has emerged in Britain, featuring acts like Dizzee Rascal and Wiley.


The instrumentation of rap is descended from disco, funk, and R&B, both in the sound systems and records sampled, and session musicians acrobat readerand their instrumentation, used. Disco and club DJs use of mixing originated from the need adobe acrobat readerto have continuous music and thus smooth transitions between tracks, while in hip hop Kool DJ Herc originated the practice of isolating and extending only the break, basically short percussion solo interludes, by mixing between two copies of the same record, as this was, according to Afrika Bambaataa the certain part of the record that everybody waits for they just let their inner self go and get wild. (Toop, 1991) James Brown, Bob James, and Parliament-(band) among many others have long been popular sources for breaks. Over this one could and did add instrumental parts from other records, frequently as horn punches (ibid). Thus the instrumentation of early sampled or sound system-based hip hop is the same as funk, disco, or rock and roll: vocals, guitar, keyboards, bass guitar, drums and percussion. A DJ needs turntables, a good sound system, and scratch fodder, which typically comes in the form of vinyl records in milk crates (Toop, 1991). Some early recorded rap music does not contain any sampling or DJing, however, for example, none of the members of the Sugarhill Gang were actually involved in the DJing scene in the Bronx and thus couldnt have done any, which explains the session player remake of Good Times. More recently instrumental adobe acrobat downloadability has become more valued as witnessed by multi-instrumentalists such as Outkast and The Roots.

The importance of rhyme

Undoubtedly, the most important element of rap lyrics is rhyme. In other forms of poetry, rhymes that span many syllables are often considered whimsical but in hip hop, the ability to construct raps with large sets of rhyming syllables is considered a sign of intelligence and achievement. To accomplish rhymes of this sophistication, rappers can use single rhyming words (intellectual/ineffectual) or they can use multiple words whose constituent syllables rhyme (octoroon/Dr.-Dooom). Rap lyrics often contain long series of lines each of which rhyme with each other. Occasionally, entire songs are composed in this fashion where all lines rhyme with each other. Of course, the more intricate the rhymes are, the more abstract the song becomes. This is because the more focus given to impressive rhyming, the harder it becomes to write coherently. Battle raps can be written with complex rhyming techniques easier than raps that tell a story or convey a message because a battle rap can employ a vast array of metaphors to conjure images of rapper to rapper combat. Rhyme is also integral to Freestyle battles. These contests pit two rappers together to lyrically insult and intimidate each other with impromptu lyrics. The ability to construct clever rhymes to insult the opponent off the top of the dome (dome being slang for head) is a critical skill to winning these contests


Originally rap records were 12 inch singles, but they quickly began to be released as albums. (Toop, 1991)

Traditional Forms

In many traditional cultures there exist lyrical forms that could loosely be described as rapping. free adobe acrobat readerExamples of these include:
Chastushka in Russia
Tsiattista in Cyprus
Enka Slamta in Ethiopia
Tassou in Senegal
de:Gstanzl in Bavaria and acrobat downloadsimilar traditions in Austria and Switzerland.

David Ben Gurion

David Ben-Gurion (October 16, 1886 — December 1, 1973, Hebrew language:) was the first Prime Minister of Israel.

Early life

He was born as David Gruen in Plonsk, Poland which was then part of the Russian Empire. Shocked by the pogroms and rampant anti-Semitism that plagued Jewish life in Eastern Europe, he became an ardent Zionism and socialist and moved to Palestine in 1906. He first worked as a journalist and adopted his Hebrew language name Ben-Gurion as he began his political career. He was expelled from Palestine, then under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, in 1915 due to his political activities. Settling in New York City in 1915 he met his future Russian-born wife, Paula Ben-Gurion and they were married in 1917, they subsequently had three children. The family returned to Palestine after World War I after it had been conquered by the United Kingdom.

Zionist leadership

Ben-Gurion was at the political forefront of the Labor Zionism movement during the fifteen years leading to the creation of the State of Israel when Labor Zionism had become the dominant tendency in the World Zionist Organization. An austere idealist, he was marked by a commitment to the establishment of a Jewish state. In the Israeli declaration of independence, he stressed that the new nation would uphold the full social and political equality of all its citizens, without distinction of race, creed or sex. Critics point to his treatment of the native Arab population prior to and during the formation of the Israeli state and his policy of allegedly brutal Jewish nationalism. Ben-Gurion encouraged Jews to join the British military at the same time as he helped orchestrate the illegal immigration of thousands of European Jewish refugees to Palestine at a time when the British sought to bar new Jewish settlement. He is also considered the architect of both the Yishuv which created a Jewish state within a state and the Haganah, the paramilitary force of the Labor Zionist movement that facilitated underground immigration, defended kibbutzim and other Jewish settlements against attack and provided the backbone of the future Israeli Defense Forces. Both these developments put pressure on the British to either grant the Jews a state in Palestine or quit the League of Nations Mandate - they did the latter in 1948 on the heels of a United Nations resolution partitioning the territory between Jews and Arabs. During the pre-statehood period in Palestine, Ben-Gurion represented the mainstream Jewish establishment and was known as a moderate, with whose Haganah organization the British dealt with frequently, sometimes in order to arrest more radical groups involved in resistance against them. He was strongly opposed to the Revisionist Zionist movement led by Zeev Jabotinsky and his successor Menachem Begin.
left, with David Ben-Gurion, behind them is Abba Eban.
He was also involved in occasional violent resistance during the short period of time his organization cooperated with free acrobat readerMenachem Begins Irgun. However, during the first weeks of Israels independence, it was decided to disband all resistance groups and replace them with a single formal army. To that end, Ben-Gurion gave the order to open fire upon and sink a ship named Altalena, which carried ammunition for the Irgun (also called Etzel) resistance group. That command remains controversial to this day.

Prime Ministership

Ben Gurion led Israel during its Israel War of Independence and, except for nearly two years of interruption between 1953 - 1955, became Prime Minister on January 25, 1948 and served until 1963. As Premier, he oversaw the establishment of the states institutions. He presided over various national projects aimed at the rapid development of the country and its population: Operation Magic Carpet, the airlift of Jews from Arab countries, the construction of the national water carrier, rural development projects and the establishment of new towns and cities. In particular, he called for pioneering settlement in outlying areas, especially in the Negev. In 1953 Ben-Gurion announced his intention to withdraw from government and settle in the Kibbutz Sde-Boker, in the Israeli Negev. He returned to office in 1955 assuming the post of Defence Minister and later prime-minister. Returning to government, Ben acrobat downloadGurion collaborated with the British and France to plan the 1956 Sinai War in which Israel stormed the Sinai peninsula in retaliation for raids by Egypt thus giving British and French forces a pretext to intervene in order to secure the Suez Canal after Egypts President Gamal Abdel Nasser had announced its nationalization. Intervention by the United States and the United Nations forced the British, French and Israelis to back down. Ben-Gurion was among the founders of Mapai which governed Israel during the first three decades of its existence. He stepped down as Prime Minister in 1963, in large part due to differences with his government over the Lavon Affair, and was succeeded by Levi Eshkol. A rivalry developed between the two, however, and Ben Gurion broke with the party in June 1965 over Eshkols handling of the Lavon affair and formed a new party, Rafi (party) which won ten seats in the Knesset. In 1968, when Rafi merged with Mapai to form the Israeli Labour Party, Ben Gurion refused to reconcile with his old party and formed another new party, The State List, which won four seats in the 1969 election. Ben Gurion retired from politics in 1970 and spent his last years on his kibbutz. He was voted by Time Magazine as one of the top 100 people who shaped the 20th century no circumstances download adobe acrobat readermust we touch land belonging to fellahs or worked by them. Only if a fellah leaves his place of settlement, should we offer to buy his land, at an appropriate price. David Ben-Gurion, 1920. From Shabtai Teveth, Ben-Gurion and the Palestinian Arabs: From Peace to War, (London: orrenf2gkOxford University Press, 1985), p. 32. The assets of the Jewish National Home must be created free adobe acrobat readerexclusively through our own work, for only the product of the Hebrew labor can serve as the national estate. From Shabtai Teveth, Ben-Gurion and the Palestinian Arabs: From Peace to War, (London: Oxford University Press, 1985), p. 66. Let me first tell you one thing: It doesnt matter what the world says about Israel, it doesnt matter what they say about us anywhere else. The only thing that matters is that we can exist here on the land of our forefathers. And unless we show the Arabs that there is a high price to pay for murdering Jews, we wont survive. David Ben-Gurions advice to Officer Ariel Sharon following the controversial and much-condemned raid on Qibya, as relayed by Ariel Sharon during an interview for the documentary Israel and the Arabs: 50 Year War. We must use terror, assassination, intimidation, land confiscation, and the cutting of all social services to rid the Galilee of its Arab population. David Ben-Gurion, May 1948, to the General Staff. From Ben-Gurion, A Biography, by Michael Ben-Zohar, Delacorte, New York 1978. We accepted the UN resolution, but the Arabs did not. They are preparing to make war on us. If we defeat them and capture western Galilee or territory on both sides of the road gijsg96yto Jerusalem, these areas will become part of the state. Why should we obligate ourselves to accept boundaries that in any case the Arabs dont accept? David Ben-Gurion to his cabinet, May 12, 1948 amidst the violent attacks launched against us for months past, we call upon the sons of the Arab people dwelling in Israel to keep the acrobat downloadpeace and to play their part in building the State on the basis of full and equal citizenship and due representation in all its institutions, provisional and permanent. Israels Proclamation of Independence, read on May 14, 1948 Jewish villages were built in the place of Arab villages. You do not even know the names of these Arab villages, and I do not blame you because geography books no longer exist. Not only do the books not exist, the Arab villages are not there either. Nahlal arose in the place of Mahlul, Kibbutz Gvat in the place of Jibta, Kibbutz Sarid in the place of Huneifis, and Kefar Yehushua in the place of Tal al-Shuman. There is not a single place built in this country that did not have a former Arab population. David Ben Gurion, quoted in The Jewish Paradox, by Nahum Goldmann, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1978, p. 99. We extend the hand of peace and good-neighborliness to all the States around us and to their people, and we call upon them to cooperate in mutual helpfulness with the independent Jewish nation in its Land. The State of Israel is prepared to make its contribution in a concerted effort for the advancement of the entire Middle East. Israels Proclamation of Independence, read on May 14, 1948 If I knew that it was possible to save all the children of Germany by transporting them to England, and only half by transferring them to the Land of Israel, I would choose the latter, for before us lies not only the numbers of these children but the historical reckoning of the people of Israel. David Ben-Gurion (Quoted on pp 855-56 in Shabtai Teveths Ben-Gurion in a slightly different translation). Why should the Arabs make peace? If I were an Arab leader, I would never make adobe acrobat reader free downloadterms with Israel. That is natural: we have taken their country. Sure, God promised it to us, but what does that matter to them? There has been anti-Semitism, the Nazis, Hitler, Auschwitz, but was that their fault? They only see one thing: we came here and stole their country. Why should they accept that? (David Ben-Gurion quoted in The Jewish Paradox by Nahum Goldmann, former president of the World Jewish Congress.) Well done, now give it back to them. David Ben-Gurion to Louis Nir, after his unit captured Hebron in the Six Day War. linksLookSmart - David Ben-Gurion directory category
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Preceded in first term by:
Prime Minister of Israel Succeeded in first term by:
Moshe Sharett
Preceded in second term by:
Moshe Sharett
Succeeded in second term by:
Levi Eshkol